Pilar and Maria: Hemingway's feminist homage to the "new woman of Spain" in for whom the bell tolls. (2022)

The emancipation of women during the Spanish Civil War provides thecontext for this exploration of the characters Pilar and Maria inHemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls. Examining these women withinthe flamework of the "New Woman" of Spain provides a richerunderstanding of each character individually as well as a newappreciation of their connections. Such context is fundamental todiscerning how Hemingway encapsulates the socio-political climate of theSpanish Civil War in the novel.


PRIOR TO THE OUTSET OF THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR (1931-1936), the"New Woman of Spain" was a recurring theme in the platform ofsweeping social and political reform proposed by the democraticallyelected Republican government of Spain. The oft-repeated sloganreflected a major shift away from the traditional view of Spanishwomen's proper role as one of docility, subservience, andinvisibility, and towards one of empowerment, agency, and autonomy. (1)During the bitter and devastating three-year conflict that followed,this new feminist consciousness prevailed. (2) In "Women in theCivil War," Catherine Coleman notes:

 The struggle for gender equality was one of the important social battles also being fought during the civil war ... political party propaganda promoted a new and positive image of the antifascist Spanish woman balancing out the predominant image of woman as victim of military action and rearguard repression. (50)

Along with the fact that women played a large and important part inthe Republican war effort, this move towards gender re-identificationoffers a unique context for examining Ernest Hemingway's portrayalsof Pilar and Maria in For Whom the Bell Tolls. Numerous scholars haveexamined these two characters in light of gender issues? However,existing criticism has failed to consider how Hemingway might havedeliberately infused his characterizations of the women with thesesignificant changes in Spanish gender relations during this importanthistorical period. In fact, there are elements in both Pilar and Mariathat can be appreciated as Hemingway's feminist homage to the"New Woman of Spain"

Hemingway was well aware of the emergence of the newly empoweredSpanish woman. He incorporated a reference to this social phenomenon inhis narrative for the 1937 pro-Loyalist documentary "The SpanishEarth." In a scene from the film, the camera closes in on a largematronly-looking woman dressed in black and wearing her dark hair pulledback in a bun. She is the lone female speaking at an eventHemingway's commentary describes as a celebration of the"newly organized People's Army" "The most famouswoman in Spain today is speaking," Hemingway informs the viewer.His commentary continues:

They call her La Pasionaria. She is not a romantic beauty, nor anyCarmen. She is the wife of a poor miner in Asturias. But all thecharacter of the new Spanish woman is in her voice. She speaks of thenew nation of Spain. It is a new nation, disciplined and brave. It is anew nation forged in the discipline of its soldiers and the enduringbravery of its women. (narr. "The Spanish Earth")

During the Spanish Civil War, La Pasionaria, whose real name wasDolores Ibarurri (1895-1989), certainly was, as Hemingway states in thefilm, "the most famous woman in Spain," an internationallyrecognized champion for the Spanish Republican cause. (4) She was anaccomplished writer and charismatic speaker, as well as a member of theSpanish Communist Party and the Spanish Parliament or Cortes. DuringFranco's 1936 assault on Madrid, Ibarurri galvanized the citizenarmy defending the city with a patriotic speech including the line HughThomas has described as the "chief rallying cry of theRepublic"--No Pasaran! (They Shall Not Pass!) (140). Along withanother of Ibarurri's famous phrases--"It is better to die onyour feet than live on your knees"--No Pasaran! became an iconicslogan often repeated by pro-Loyalist speakers, chanted in Republicanrallies, and reproduced on war posters and other printed matter.Ibarurri's words helped attract worldwide respect and sympathy forSpain's beleaguered democratic government, so it is not surprisingthat Hemingway emphasizes her presence at a rally. However, a carefulanalysis of his description of Ibarurri in "The Spanish Earth"reveals a double purpose for her appearance in the film.

Hemingway's commentary in "The Spanish Earth" whichattributes "all the character of the new Spanish woman" to LaPasionaria's "voice" specifically alludes to her role asa representation of and spokeswoman for the redefinition of gender rolesunder the Second Republic. In a study of Ibarurri, "Writing theFemale Revolutionary Self: Dolores Ibarurri and the Spanish CivilWar" Kristine Byron observes:

 ... the Civil War held out the potential for liberation of Spanish women to a degree much higher than in supposedly more "advanced" nations at the time, such as Britain and France. For Pasionaria, the revolution was just as much about empowering women as it was about empowering the working classes... (163, n.13)

Ibarurri was a champion of women's rights (5) and consistentlyand fervently urged the women of Spain to change their view ofthemselves: to become more politically involved, to take an active partin the resistance movement against Franco, and to rebel againststrictures imposed by the Catholic Church and its masculine authority.She distributed birth-control literature published by the liberalanarchist feminist women's group--the Mujeres Libres--and glowinglycommended women who joined the Republican army (called milicianas). (6)Ibarurri did much more than just speak out; she also participated inthese new cultural identities, not only in her role as militantspokeswoman but also in her personal life. Estranged from her minerhusband, Ibarurri lived openly with her 27 year-old lover, FranciscoAnton Saenz (Mullaney 235).

Hugh Thomas describes Ibarurri as "a simple, direct andpowerful woman ... who represented the idea of revolutionarywomanhood"(9). There are interesting parallels between the historicfigure and Hemingway's multilayered portrait of Pilar in For Whomthe Bell Tolls. Not only do the two women share many physicalcharacteristics, but Pilar also embodies Ibarurri's revolutionaryspirit, charisma, and oratorical skill as well as her iconic status as arepresentation of, as Hemingway states in the film, "the newSpanish woman."

Pilar and Ibarurri share striking similarities in physicalappearance. In the narrative of "The Spanish Earth" Hemingwayobserves that Ibarurri is "not a romantic beauty, nor anyCarmen" Indeed, period photos of Ibarurri recall Pilar, describedin For Whom the Bell Tolls as "barbarous" and ugly but"braver than Pablo" (29), with a "square, heavy face,lined and pleasantly ugly" (98) and with "bigshoulder[s]" (101).

 Pilar is ... a woman of about fifty almost as big as Pablo, almost as wide as she was tall, in black peasant skirt and waist, with heavy wool socks on heavy legs, black rope-soled shoes and a brown face like a model of a granite monument. She had big but nice looking hands and her thick curly black hair was twisted into a knot on her neck. (34)

Pilar also embodies Ibarurri's passion for the Republic andshares her sharp intelligence and powerful and intimidating speakingskills. "An intelligent woman" (FWTBT 183), Pilar has a"deep voice" (34) and "booming laugh" (103). She"believe[s] in the Republic"(100), and Hemingway notes that ifshe is provoked with someone, she can "scare them to death with[her] mouth" (145).

Like Ibarurri, Pilar exemplifies the emancipated behavior endorsedby the Mujeres Libres. She consistently ignores cultural propriety.Pilar proudly proclaims she has "lived with threebullfighters" (FWTBT 60), brags of mak[ing] love in Valencia"with one (94), smokes (108), and discusses with Robert and Maria howoften "the earth moved" for her during lovemaking (190). Pilaralso advises Maria on "things one can do for a husband" (377).The fact that she gives sexual advice to Maria, as well as the nature ofthat advice, conveys that Pilar has broken with traditional femininebehavior in favor of the type of female sexual education advocated bythe Mujeres Libres: "physiology, sexual pleasure, sexualfunctioning and contraception" (Ackelsberg 167). (7)

Like Ibarurri, Pilar easily takes on the role of femalerevolutionary leader and clearly demonstrates her ability to inspire andmobilize. After demanding that Pablo's men change their allegiance(FWTBT 62), she becomes "Senora Commander" and makes it clearto all: "Here I command. No one commands but me. Here Icommand" (60). Robert acknowledges Pilar's leadershipqualities early on: "Without the woman" he concludes,"there is no organization nor discipline here and with the woman itcan be very good" (69).

While the similarities between Ibarurri and Pilar are numerous, Ido not want to suggest that Hemingway modeled the character of Pilarentirely on Ibarurri. Several scholars have argued effectively thatHemingway drew his inspiration from various other strong and interestingwomen including Gertrude Stein, Pastora Imperio, Martha Gellhorn, andeven Grace Hemingway. (8) Ibarurri is, I suggest, only a partial modelhere. Moreover, towards the end of the novel, the Pilar/La Pasionariaconnection takes a quite convoluted turn.

Cary Nelson writes: "It seems likely that Hemingway used thewriting of the novel to sort through his contradictory feelings aboutthe very different sorts of Republican supporters he met in Spain"("Honor" 25). Nelson's assessment certainly seems toapply to Hemingway's treatment of Ibarurri in the novel. Accordingto Hans Schoots, after the Republican defeat in 1939 Ibarurri left Spainfor Moscow in order to "thereafter fulfill the role of mouthpieceof Stalin" (120). Perhaps for this reason Hemingway considered herreputation forever damaged. In a letter to Jay Allen written ca. 13January 1940, Hemingway declared: "Dolores always made me vomitalways" (qtd Baker Life 347, 629). How did these negative feelingsabout Ibarurri infiltrate Hemingway's novel?

One answer resides in Pilar's mimicry of Ibarurri'sfamous "They shall not pass!" slogan with her own crypticcomment, "that which must pass will pass" (FWTBT 58).Hemingway also discredits Ibarurri's loyalty to the Republic whenanother character alludes to the fact that she has sent her young son tosafety in Russia during the conflict. (9)

Joaquin: "Pasionaria says it is better to die on your feetthan to live on your knees"

"Mierda again" the man said and another man said, overhis shoulder, "We are on our bellies, not our knees."

"Thou. Communist. Do you know your Pasionaria has a son thyage in Russia since the start of the movement?" (FWTBT 332)

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This comment is particularly pointed considering that, as Mary Nashpoints out in Defying Male Civilization: Women in the Spanish Civil War,Pasionaria's speeches consistently "hammered home thesacrifice of Spanish sons" (58).

Alvah Bessie, a veteran of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, first notedthe convoluted nature of the Pilar/La Pasionaria connection in For Whomthe Bell Tolls. In a 1970 postscript to his 1940 review of the novel,Bessie comments,

 Hemingway's slander of this great woman [Ibarurri] ... remains inexplicable--especially when you consider the fact that the most memorable character in For Whom the Bell Tolls is Pilar, whose physical appearance, whose convictions, whose voice and whose very gestures were not only modeled on Dolores by the novelist, but were reproduced brilliantly in the film version by the great Greek actress who played the role: Katina Paxinou. (14)

Whether Hemingway expressed his conflicted feelings about Ibarurrithrough the Ibarurri/Pilar connection in the novel remains a subject ofdebate. What is pertinent is that real people in Hemingway's lifeoften served as partial models in his fiction, helping him to captureelements essential to his purpose. In this case, despite hisdisappointment with Ibarurri's political alignment with Stalin,Hemingway clearly incorporated aspects of her powerful iconic presenceas the "New Woman of Spain" in the character of Pilar.

According to Carlos Baker, Hemingway made the following comment tohis editor, Max Perkins, during the writing of the novel: "So far,said he [Hemingway], there are two wonderful women in the book"(343, 628). (10) Hemingway created not one, but two embodiments of the"New Spanish Woman" in For Whom the Bell Tolls. The novelfeatures another heroine besides the formidable Pilar, and while Mariadoes not share Pilar's aggressiveness and dominant personality,Hemingway also provides Maria with some obvious characteristicsqualifying her as a "new woman."

Nineteen-year-old Maria (FWTBT 171) seems to exhibit thetraditional behavior of the stereotypical Spanish woman: docility,subservience, and abnegation. She is Jordan's "littlerabbit" and utters sentences such as, "and do you like me too?Do I please thee?" (176). Yet Maria is heroic in her own right.During the fascist takeover of her village the young woman exhibitscourage in the face of unimaginable fear and suffering. Later, she makeslittle mention of the horrors she endured during her three monthimprisonment at Valladolid (26). Maria says that she "never gavein" and tells Robert, "Where things were done to me I foughtuntil I could not see" (79). In another conversation between themMaria repeats, "Never did I submit. Always I fought and always ittook two of them or more to do me the harm" (378). Miriam Mandelpoints out that Robert, Pilar, and El Sordo all recognize Maria'sbravery by referring to her as "Guapa"--a term which,according to Mandel, means "handsome, brave" (227).

Understandably, Maria has been severely traumatized by theatrocities she witnessed and the terror she experienced. "When wepicked the girl up at the time of the train" Rafael informs Jordan,"she would not speak and she cried all the time and if any onetouched her she would shiver like a wet dog. She was in a very bad statebut now she is better" (FWTBT 32). (11) Yet while Maria has begunto get "better" physically and emotionally when Robert Jordanfirst meets her (32), over the course of the narrative she undergoes amuch more subtle, yet deeply powerful transformation in her character.Examining this transformation allows us to appreciate new dimensions andnew identities in Maria, one of the "two wonderful women" inHemingway's novel.

Maria becomes progressively more assertive as the story unfolds.Her sense of agency begins with a desire to avenge the death of herparents. She asks Jordan to teach her to shoot (FWTBT 186), and confidesto him that the fascists who killed her family and assaulted her"are bad people and I would like to kill some of them with thee ifI could" (381). With a resolve reflective of this newassertiveness, she shows Jordan a razor blade, given to her by Pilar,which she intends to use to kill herself rather than suffer any furtherdegradation (186). (12) But Maria's transformation extends beyond adesire for revenge and a newfound sense of self-agency.

A striking photomural by Josep Renau, exhibited at the SpanishPavilion of the 1937 Paris World's Fair, 13 highlights the radicalshift in gender perception which occurred during the Spanish Civil Warand directly relates to this discussion of Hemingway's depiction ofMaria.

Superimposed on an expansive glass wall, and standing side by side,are life-sized photos of two Spanish women. One woman is dressed in atraditional, elaborately constructed, and richly decorated weddingdress. The other woman, a Republican militiawoman, is wearing anopen-collared shirt and trousers. The woman wearing the traditionaldress appears weighted down by its voluminous multi-layered skirt andlong sleeves. Her arms hang down limply by her side, her mouth istightly closed, and she stares straight ahead. In comparison, the fabricof the trousers and shirt of the militiawoman is lightweight enough toappear to be moving as she strides confidently forward. Her arms conveystrength and movement, as does her left shoulder, which seems to moretoward the viewer. The woman's mouth is open and she appears to beissuing some sort of command. Her eyes are piercing and intent. Her headis uncovered and her hair is pulled off her face. Unlike the bride inthe other photograph, this woman appears to be walking out of thedisplay straight towards the visitor. The only adornment on her clothingis a leather strap across her shoulder--possibly a gunholster--investing her with an aggressive and militaristic persona.


Explaining the intended message of Renau's photomural, JordanaMendelson writes:

 ...Renau contrasted the Arxiu Mas image of traditional culture with the forward stride of a young militia woman. The photomural used the visual comparison to reinforce a message about the liberation of women under the Republic: shedding her age-old traditional dress, the new woman of the revolution would find freedom in her fight against fascism. (138)

The legend on the glass under the militiawoman confirms thismessage: "The New Woman of Spain has rid herself of thesuperstitions and misery of her past enslavement and is reborn andcapable of taking part in the celebration of the future" (Graham112 n.7).

For visitors to the 1937 World's Fair, the trousers on themiliciana would have been the most obvious sign of Spanish women'snew emancipation and alignment with aggressive political action. As Nashexplains:

 ... for [Spanish] women the wearing of trousers or monos [blue overalls] acquired an even deeper significance, as women had never before adopted such masculine attire. So for women, donning the militia/revolutionary uniform not only meant an exterior identification with the process of social change but also a challenge to traditional female attire and appearance. (14) (52)

Consider Hemingway's image of Maria at the time of the fascistassault on her village--a vulnerable and helpless young woman with longbraids (soon cut off and stuffed in her mouth), and wearing a long heavyskirt (thrown over her head during the rape). Now compare that with the"new" Maria who wears, interestingly enough, trousers and"a khaki shirt, open at the neck" who offers to "hold thelegs of the gun," and who announces to Robert, "I would liketo go for a train with thee" (FWTBT 149, 290, 381). If wesuperimpose these two contrasting images of Maria on Renau'sphotomural of the two Spanish women, the similarities are clear andthought-provoking. In the same fashion as Renau, Hemingway deliberatelyand visually demonstrates the change in gender roles during the SpanishCivil War through these two juxtaposed images of Maria.

In "In Love with Papa," Linda Miller discussesHemingway's use of vignettes which she describes as "quickcamera-like shots that zoom in close to freeze the moment" (13).Near the end of the novel, we find Hemingway using just such a"quick camera-like shot" to indicate that Maria'stransformation has taken another turn. While the passage seems to havegone unnoticed in discussions of For Whom the Bell Tolls, it clearlydemonstrates Maria's newfound revolutionary spirit. In this scene,Maria pleads with Robert to let her come with him to track down thecavalry men he suspects might discover the guerrilla band. Despite herinsistence Robert refuses. Hemingway then describes Maria'sresponse:

"I go." Her fist, clenched tight in his pocket, beat hardagainst his thigh. He looked at her and saw there were tears in hereyes. She pulled her fist out of his pocket and put both arms tightaround his neck and kissed him.

"I go." she said. "Me voy. I go."

He looked back and saw her standing there, the first morningsunlight on her brown face and the cropped, tawny, burntgold hair. Shelifted her fist at him [my emphasis] and turned and walked back down thetrail, her head down. (FWTBT 292)

There are, of course, several ways the reader might interpretMaria's raised fist. One could argue that it is a gesture of angeror frustration. But placed in the context of the Spanish Civil War, thisvignette of Maria giving the clenched fist salute of Republican Spainindicates that she too now fervently embraces the "movement."(15)


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In Teaching Representations of the Spanish Civil War, Noel Valisobserves: "One of the most significant aspects of the war was thevisual presence of women both on and off the battlefield" (17).Many of these women were anonymous heroines and a significant number ofthem lost their lives. Framing For Whom the Bell Tolls within thisunique social revolution deepens our understanding and appreciation ofthe novel. In Pilar and Maria, Hemingway has condensed his respect forthe "New Women of Spain," who during the Spanish Civil Warassumed their newfound autonomy and directed it towards defending theirland and freedom against Francos overwhelmingly superior equipment andforces. Their stories suggest how Loyalist women coped with loss andbereavement, and how they demonstrated their strength and stamina. InFor Whom the Bell Tolls, Hemingway honors their courage and sacrificesthrough Pilar and Maria--"two fine women" who embody qualitiesof the "New Woman of Spain."


Ackelsberg, Martha A. Free Women of Spain: Anarchism and theStruggle for the Emancipation of Women. Oakland, CA: AK P, 2005.

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Bessie, Alvah C. "A Postscript." 13 April 1970. In TheMerrill Studies in For Whom the Bell Tolls. Ed. Sheldon NormanGrebstein. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill, 1971.14.

Borkenau, Franz. The Spanish Cockpit: An Eyewitness Account of theSpanish Civil War. 1937. London: Phoenix P, 2000.

Brenner, Gerry. "Once a Rabbit, Always? A Feminist Interviewwith Maria." In Blowing the Bridge: Essays on Hemingway and ForWhom the Bell Tolls. Ed. Rena Sanderson. New York: Greenwood P, 1992.131-142.

Broer, Lawrence R. and Gloria Holland, eds. Hemingway and Women:Female Critics and the Female Voice. Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 2002.

Byron, Kristine. "Writing the Female Revolutionary Self:Dolores Ibarurri and the Spanish Civil War" Journal of ModernLiterature 28 (Fal12004): 138-165.

Coleman, Catherine. "Women in the Spanish Civil War" InHeart of Spain: Robert Capa's Photographs of the Spanish Civil War.Ed. Lesley A. Martin. New York: Aperture Foundation, 1999. 43-51.

Comley, Nancy R. and Robert Scholes. Hemingway's Genders:Rereading the Hemingway Text. New Haven, CT: Yale U P, 1994. 23-71.

Freedberg, Catherine B. The Spanish Pavilion at the ParisWorld's Fair of 1937. New York: Garland, 1986.

Graham, Helen. The Spanish Civil War: A Very Short Introduction.Oxford, UK: Oxford U P, 2005.

--. "Women and Social Change" In Spanish CulturalStudies: An Introduction: The Struggle for Modernity. Eds. Helen Grahamand Jo Labanyi. New York: Oxford U P, 1996.99-115.

Hemingway, Ernest. For Whom the Bell Tolls. 1940. New York: Simonand Schuster, 1995.

--. Narr. The Spanish Earth. Dir. Joris Ivens. Photo John Ferno.Music arrang. Marc Blitzstein and Virgil Thomson. ContemporaryHistorians 1937.

Ibarurri, Dolores. They, Shall Not Pass: The Autobiography of LaPasionaria. Trans. unknown. From El Unico Camino (1963) by DoloresIbarurri. New York: International P, 1966.

Josephs, Allen. For Whom the Bell Tolls: Ernest Hemingway'sUndiscovered Country. New York: Twayne, 1994.

Kert, Bernice. The Hemingway Women. New York: W.W. Norton 1983.

Mandel, Miriam B. Reading Hemingway: The Facts in the Fictions.Lanham, MD: Scarecrow P, 2001.

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Mangini, Shirley. "Memories of Resistance: Female ActivistsFrom the Spanish Civil War" Signs 17.1 (Autumn 1991): 171-186.

--. Memories of Resistance: Women's Voices From the SpanishCivil War. New Haven, CT: Yale U P, 1995.

Mendelson, Jordana. Documenting Spain: Artists, Exhibition Culture,and the Modern Nation, 19291939. University Park: Penn State U P, 2005.

Meyers, Jeffrey. Hemingway: A Biography. New York: Harper &Row, 1985.

Miller, Linda. "In Love with Papa" In Broer and Holland.3-22.

Mullaney, Marie Marmo. Revolutionary Women: Gender and theSocialist Revolutionary Role. New York: Praeger P, 1983.

Nash, Mary. Defying Male Civilization: Women in the Spanish CivilWar. Denver, CO: Arden P, 1995.

Nelson, Cary. "Honor and Trauma: Hemingway and the LincolnVets" In Remembering Spain: Hemingway's Civil War Eulogy andthe Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. Ed. Cary Nelson. Urbana: Uof Illinois P, 1994. 19-40.

Nolan, Charles J. Jr. "A Little Bit Crazy: PsychiatricDiagnoses of Three Hemingway Women Characters" The Hemingway Review28.2 (Spring 2009): 105-118.

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Sinclair, Gail. "Revisiting the Code: Female Foundations and'The Undiscovered Country' in For Whom the Bell Tolls."In Broer and Holland. 93-108.

Stanton, Edward E Hemingway and Spain: A Pursuit. Seattle: U ofWashington P, 1989.

Stoneback, H. R. '"The Priest Did Not Answer':Hemingway, the Church, the Party, and For Whom the Bell Tolls. InSanderson. 99-111.

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(1.) The Second Republic endorsed reforms including thelegalization of divorce and abortion, the abolishment of the crime ofadultery, women's suffrage (1931), maternity insurance plans, laborlegislation, education reform, and civil marriage laws. Prostitution wasdeclared illegal.

(2.) In The Spanish Civil War: A Very Short Introduction, HelenGraham writes: "The military coup unleashed what was in effect aseries of culture wars: urban culture and cosmopolitan lifestyles versusrural tradition; secular against religious; authoritarianism againstliberal political cultures; centre versus periphery; traditional genderroles versus the 'new woman" (2).

(3.) Gender-related criticism of Maria and Pilar includes GerryBrenner's "Once a Rabbit, Always? A Feminist Interview withMaria" Wolfgang E. H. Rudat's "The Other War in For Whomthe Bell Tolls: Maria and Miltonic Gender-Role Battles," and NancyR. Comley and Robert Scholes's "Mothers, Nurses, Bitches,Girls, and Devils."

(4.) In "Writing the Female Revolutionary Self: DoloresIbarurri and the Spanish Civil War," Kristine Byron states that LaPasionaria was "arguably the most famous Spanish woman of the 20thcentury" (138).

(5.) In her autobiography, Ibarurri writes from her own personalexperience of poverty and repression about the plight of the Spanishwoman:

 In the borne, she was stripped of her social identity; she was committed to sacrifice, to privation, to all manner of service by which her husband's and her children's lives were made more bearable. Thus her own needs were negligible; her own personality was nullified....Thus was the tradition of generations. (60)

(6.) In Free Women of Spain: Anarchism and the Struggle for theEmancipation of Women, Martha A. Ackelsberg explains: "In 1936,groups of women in Madrid and Barcelona founded Mujeres Libres, anorganization dedicated to the liberation of women from their'triple enslavement to ignorance, as women, and as producers"(21).

(7.) According to Mary Nash, "Even in private, with their ownhusbands, [Spanish] women did not openly discuss sexuality orreproductive issues because males considered any interest or knowledgein this field to be threatening and even a sign of dubious moralstandards of unnatural desires" (167).

(8.) Several critics have commented on the similarities betweenGertrude Stein and Pilar. Joseph Waldmeir, for example, observes thatPilar is a "composite of a number of women--La Passionaria (sic)comes immediately to mind" But Waldmeir ultimately concludes that,based on "Pilar's Steinian qualities--strength ofleadership.., courage, conviction, commitment to the point ofstubbornness ... Hemingway was thinking primarily of GertrudeStein" (43-45). Nancy Comley and Robert Scholes point out that"Pilar's physical appearance does indeed resemble that ofGertrude" and that her character is "constructed by blendingthe maternal.., with that of the manly lesbian on the model of GertrudeStein" (46). Agreeing with Edward F. Stanton's Hemingway andSpain: A Pursuit (171), Allen Josephs believes that Hemingway"based Pilar on Pastora Imperio" (76). In "The Priest DidNot Answer': Hemingway, the Church, the Party, and For Whom theBell Tolls" H. R. Stoneback concludes that Pilar is"Hemingway's secular reincarnation of Pilar, that is, NuestraSenora del Pilar, the Virgin Patroness of Spain" (103). JeffreyMeyers points out that Pilar "has more than a touch of GraceHemingway's forceful personality" (337).

(9.) Ibarurri's only son, Ruben, joined the Red Army and waskilled at the Battle of Stalingrad in 1942. Referencing Hemingway'sslander of Ibarurri in the novel, Alvah Bessie points out:

It is true that Dolores Ibarurri's two surviving children ...were evacuated with thousands of other Spanish children to the U.S.S.R.early in the war.... Hemingway knew of this. He also knew--or shouldhave known--that in 1936, when they were sent, Ruben Ibarurri was twelveyears old. ("Postscript" 14)

(10.) According to Carlos Baker, the character of Maria wasinspired bY a young Spanish nurse named Maria whom Hemingway met in 1938during the war. The young woman had been raped by Fascist troops earlyin the conflict (Baker 328; see also Bernice Kert 334). Jeffrey Meyerscontends that Hemingway "based" Mana on Martha Gellhorn (336)

(11.) In a 2009 essay entitled "A Little Bit Crazy':Psychiatric Diagnoses of Three Hemingway Women Characters," CharlesNolan contends: "There seems little question that Maria suffersfrom posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and is graduallyrecovering" (117).

(12.) Wolfgang Rudat and Gail Sinclair have also discussed whatthey see as Maria's developing sexual aggressiveness. In "TheOther War in For Whom the Bell Tolls: Maria and Miltonic Gender-RoleBattles," Rudat argues that Maria "has unjustly beenstereotyped as being without individual personality, as submissive andas unimportant to the overall theme of the novel" and yet, heargues, she becomes the "sexual aggressor" in her relationshipwith Robert Jordan (8, 12). Gail Sinclair observes that "Maria hasmoved from victimization three months earlier, to a seizing of her willand her sexuality" (102).

(13.) Sources for discussions of the Spanish Pavilion includeCatherine Freedberg's The Spanish Pavilion at the 1937 ParisWorld's Fair and Jordana Mendelson's Documenting Spain:Artists, Exhibition Culture, and the Modern Nation.

(14.) In/he Spanish Cockpit: An Eyewitness Account of the SpanishCivil War, Franz Borkenau writes:" ... it would have beenunthinkable before for a Spanish girl to appear in trousers, as themilitia-girls invariably do" (72). Mary Nash explains further:

 Although revolutionary/war imagery cannot be viewed as a direct reflection of reality, it may point to readjustments in patterns of social behavior and representation of gender roles. While a discussion of the cultural representation of the miliciana or the forms of women's dress during the war may, at first glance appear to be frivolous of irrelevant, the construction of gendered cultural and symbolic imagery is crucial to the exploration of women's experience in the war... (49)

(15.) The clenched fist salute became an iconic symbol ofanti-fascist solidarity against Franco and his allies. Spanish citizensof all ages and from all walks of life, as well as members of themilitia and International Brigades, can be seen giving this salute invintage newsreels, photos, and newspapers from the period. The image wasfrequently included on war posters and in other artwork as well.

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For Whom the Bell Tolls. For Whom the Bell Tolls. For whom the bell tolls. For whom the bell tolls. Once the story begins, the theme of death is clearly relevant as we enter…

Ernest Hemingway’s novel, For Whom the Bell Tolls, is a story about Robert Jordan, an American professor, who travels to Spain to fight with the Spanish guerrillas.. Without Pilar, Jordan and the reader would not empathize with the glory of the Spanish Republic (Mandel 1), the ideal of the “New Spanish Woman” (Guill 1), or Hemingway’s own belief that wars diminish all people (Reynolds 3).. Just as Ibarurri is described by Hemingway in his narrative for the documentary film The Spanish Earth (qtd Guill 3), Pilar is similarly described by Robert Jordan.. Furthermore, Hemingway’s commentary states that La Pasionaria is not beautiful, but “the character of the New Spanish Woman is in her voice” (qtd Guill 3).. Pilar’s references to various matadors who are cultural icons would also have been familiar to the coeval reader.. The reader, unburdened by Jordan’s stereotypically western prejudices that all gypsies are lazy or thieves, knows that when Pilar says she saw “nothing” it means that Jordan will die soon (Murad 98).. Pilar is not merely a character within the novel; she is the crucial character who drives the action and enables the author to present his deep philosophical beliefs within the controlled scenario of For Whom the Bell Tolls.. 'Pilar and Maria: Hemingway's Feminist Homage To The 'New Woman Of Spain ' In For Whom The Bell Tolls. '

On its surface, Ernest Hemingway’s For Whom the Bell Tolls presents the Spanish Civil War as a binary conflict: a struggle between Fascism and Socialism.. Hemingway successfully captures the polarized condition of the interwar period, and yet both Fascist and Republican characters in the novel demonstrate an ongoing contest between political allegiance and moral belief.. His opposition to interventionism is also negated in For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940) , as the main protagonist Robert Jordan is an American man fighting for the cause of Spanish liberation: he is even branded by his new comrades with the pet name “ Ingles .” Hemingway’s play The Fifth Column (1938) seems unconcerned with the means taken for victory in the war, a striking difference from his preoccupation with the implications of violence in For Whom the Bell Tolls (Nilsson 86).. According to literary critic Stacey Guill, Hemingway encapsulates this concept of a “New Spain” using his strong female characters, Pilar and Maria, as Republicanism transformed the role of women in Spain.. Considering the polarization of ideology that characterized the division of Spain, Hemingway’s wealth of personifications are critical tools for communicating these networks of belief in order to illustrate underlying similarities between these distinct ideologies.. Robert Jordan summarizes this sentiment as he evaluates the relationship between Spanish liberals and the Church, reflecting, “The people had grown away from the Church because the Church was in the government and the government had always been rotten” (Hemingway 355).. By admitting he misses God, Hemingway presents Anselmo’s faith as having been a deep, interpersonal connection; the Spaniard speaks as though his faith was once a personal relationship and his change in belief has been a genuine loss.. Furthermore, Anselmo’s ideology against the killing of man speaks to Hemingway’s own demonstrated belief in a common humanity while underscoring the very complexity of such a conflict; in order to protect the rights of mankind, the Republican characters must deprive their fellow man of life and defy the very ideology their efforts aim to protect.. “Pilar and Maria: Hemingway’s Feminist Homage to the ‘New Woman of Spain’ in For Whom the Bell Tolls .” The Hemingway Review , PDF ed., Vol.. “Ernest Hemingway and the Politics of the Spanish Civil War.” The Hemingway Review , Vol.

Quote 1: "I would always rather not know.. Quote 2: "'I don't like that sadness,' he thought.. Quote 4: "One cup of it took the place of the evening papers, of all the old evenings in cafés, of all chestnut trees that would be in bloom now in this month, of the great slow horses of the outer boulevards, of book shops, of kiosques, and of galleries, of the Parc Montsouris, of the Stade Buffalo, and of the Butte Chaumont, of the Guarangy Trust Company and the Ile de la Cité, of Foyot's old hotel, and of being able to read and relax in the evening; of all things he had enjoyed and forgotten and that came back to him when he tasted that opaque, bitter, tongue-numbing, brain-warming, stomach-warming, idea-changing liquid alchemy.". Quote 7: "Look at the ugliness.. Then, one day, for no reason, he sees you as ugly as you really are and he is not blind anymore and then you see yourself as ugly as he sees you and you lose your man and your feeling... After a while, when you are as ugly as I am, as ugly as women can be, then, as I say after a while the feeling, the idiotic feeling that you are beautiful, grows slowly in one again.. Quote 9: "Then just shut up about what we are going to do afterwards, will you, Inglés?. Quote 16: "In the night he awoke and held her tight as though she were all of life and it was being taken away from him.". Quote 17: "If he were not of great ability he would have died last night.. Quote 18: "In war cannot say what one feels.". Quote 20: "[El Sordo] was not at all afraid of dying but he was angry at being on this hill which was only utilizable as a place to die.... Quote 23: "I guess really good soldiers are really good at very little else.". Quote 24: "There is no finer and no worse people in the world.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1962.. London: Associated University Press, 1998.. New York: State University of New York Press, 1999.. New York: New York University Press, 2000.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2 nd Ed.. “Gesturing toward an Open Space: Gender, Form, and Language in E. M. Forster's Howards End.” Claridge, Laura and Elizabeth Langland eds.. Lawrence and the Censor-Morons.” Lawrence, D.H.. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.


1. Restored Boat To Star In Film About Ernest Hemingway
(CBS Miami)
2. Interview d'Ernest Hemingway
(atelierdesarchives History)
3. Hemingway: Coming of Age in an Earlier Age
(Detroit Public TV)
4. On Hemingway: Psychobiography with Dr. Gail Saltz and Susan F. Beegel
(The 92nd Street Y, New York)
5. Hemingway's Cuban Home — Finca Vigía — CCTV Feature
(Steve Mencher)
6. Hemingway: Between Key West and Cuba
(Stefanie and Michael)

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